Genomics comes from the word Genome, which is a complete set of genetic information of an organism or an individual.
Genomics is a field of science, which is focused on understanding and interpreting the DNA makeup of an organism through sequencing and analysis. Just as a genome is central to the life of an individual, genomics is central to the science of biology and it has helped in creating solutions real-world solutions.
Genomics as a field contrasts with genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance. Instead, genomics’ main purpose is the collective characterization and quantification of genes.
It is difficult to talk about genomics and fail to talk about the Human Genome Project (HGP), as it is one of the most important developments in the field of biology. This was a project that was led by the U.S. Government, and it was successfully completed in 2003 after completing the first sequencing of a human genome. Through this project, the field of genomics was launched, the medical field was transformed, and it largely gave birth to the modern biotechnology industry.
Types of Genomics:
Structural genomics - This type of genomics aims to determine the three-dimensional structure of every protein encoded by the given genome.
Mutation genomics - It aims to study the genome in terms of mutations that occur in an individual’s genome.
Functional genomics - This type of genomics aims to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing) to describe the functions and interactions of genes and proteins.
Comparative genomics - It aims to compare genome features between different species.