What is ELMo?

ELMo (Embeddings from Language Models) is a deep contextualized word representation that models both complex characteristics of word use and how these uses vary across linguistic contexts. ELMo embeddings are pre-trained on a large corpus of text using a bidirectional language model (BiLM), which captures both the left and right context of words. ELMo has been shown to significantly improve the performance of various natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, and question answering.

How does ELMo work?

ELMo works by training a deep, bidirectional language model on a large text corpus. The model consists of multiple layers of LSTM cells, and the embeddings are generated by combining the hidden states from all the layers. This allows the model to capture context-dependent information and produce embeddings that are relevant to the specific task at hand.

Example of using ELMo embeddings in Python:

To use ELMo embeddings, you first need to install the AllenNLP library:

$ pip install allennlp

Here’s a simple example of using ELMo embeddings with the AllenNLP library:

from allennlp.modules.elmo import Elmo, batch_to_ids

# Load the pre-trained ELMo model
options_file = "https://allennlp.s3.amazonaws.com/models/elmo/2x4096_512_2048cnn_2xhighway/elmo_2x4096_512_2048cnn_2xhighway_options.json"
weight_file = "https://allennlp.s3.amazonaws.com/models/elmo/2x4096_512_2048cnn_2xhighway/elmo_2x4096_512_2048cnn_2xhighway_weights.hdf5"
elmo = Elmo(options_file, weight_file, num_output_representations=1, dropout=0)

# Create a list of sentences
sentences = [["I", "love", "deep", "learning"], ["Deep", "learning", "is", "fun"]]

# Convert sentences to character ids
character_ids = batch_to_ids(sentences)

# Get the ELMo embeddings
embeddings = elmo(character_ids)

Additional resources on ELMo: