# How to Get Column Name Which Contains a Specific Value at Any Rows in Python Pandas

As a data scientist or software engineer working with data, you may find yourself needing to identify the column name that contains a specific value at any row in a Pandas DataFrame. This can be a common task when performing data cleaning, data wrangling, or data analysis. In this article, we will explore different ways to achieve this task using Python Pandas.

# Table of Contents

## Understanding the Problem

Before diving into the solution, it is important to understand the problem we are trying to solve. Let’s consider the following example DataFrame:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.DataFrame({
'A': [1, 2, 3],
'B': [4, 5, 6],
'C': [7, 8, 9]
})
```

Suppose we want to find the column name that contains the value `5`

at any row in the DataFrame. In this case, the expected output is `'B'`

.

## Solution

### Using df.isin() Function

This method involves the use of the `isin()`

function combined with boolean indexing.

`df.isin([5])`

: Creates a boolean DataFrame where each cell is`True`

if it matches the specified value (5 in this case) and`False`

otherwise.`.any()`

: This is applied to the resulting boolean DataFrame, aggregating each column to a single boolean value (`True`

if any cell in the column matches the value,`False`

otherwise).`df.columns[...]`

: The boolean Series obtained from the previous step is then used to index the DataFrame’s columns, extracting the names of columns that contain the target value.

```
# Target value
value = 5
# Extract Column Names
column_names = df.columns[df.isin([value]).any()].tolist()
print(column_names)
```

Output:

```
['B']
```

#### Pros

**Efficiency:**This method is highly efficient, especially for large datasets, as it leverages vectorized operations.**Simplicity:**The code is concise and easy to read.**Directness:**This approach directly targets the columns, reducing intermediate steps.

#### Cons

**Understanding Vectorization:**Requires a basic understanding of Pandas operations and boolean indexing.

### Using a Boolean Mask with Pandas

**Create a Boolean Mask:**First, create a Boolean DataFrame where each cell is True if it matches the target value and`False`

otherwise.**Aggregate Across Rows:**Then, use the`any()`

function to aggregate this information across rows. This will give you a Series where each element is`True`

if the corresponding column contains the target value at least once.**Extract Column Names:**Finally, extract the column names where the value is`True`

.

```
# Target value
value = 5
# Step 1: Create a Boolean Mask
mask = df == value
# Step 2: Aggregate across rows
columns_with_value = mask.any()
# Step 3: Extract Column Names
column_names = columns_with_value[columns_with_value].index.tolist()
print(column_names)
```

Output:

```
['B']
```

#### Pros

**Efficiency:**Leveraging vectorized operations makes this method suitable for large DataFrames.**Comprehensiveness:**Retrieves all columns containing the specified value.**Readability:**The code is clear and easy to follow.

#### Cons

**Understanding Vectorization:**Requires understanding of vectorized operations in Pandas, which might be slightly advanced for beginners.

### Using numpy

The `numpy`

library is known for its efficient numerical operations. By combining `numpy`

with Pandas, we can achieve a more optimized solution for identifying the column name containing the target value.

**Create a NumPy Array:**Convert the Pandas DataFrame into a NumPy array for efficient element-wise operations.

```
import numpy as np
value = 5
df_array = df.to_numpy()
```

**Find Indices of Target Value:**Use numpy functions to find the indices where the target value occurs in the array.

```
row_indices, col_indices = np.where(df_array == value)
```

**Extract Unique Column Names:**Extract unique column names corresponding to the identified column indices.

```
column_names = df.columns[col_indices].unique().tolist()
print(column_names)
```

Output:

```
['B']
```

#### Pros

Takes advantage of the efficiency of numpy for array operations.

Suitable for large datasets due to optimized underlying operations.

#### Cons

Requires conversion of the DataFrame to a NumPy array, which may not be desirable in some cases.

## Conclusion

This article provided three efficient methods to find all column names in a Pandas DataFrame that contain a specific value. These techniques are essential for data analysts and scientists to effectively manage and analyze their data. Remember to test your code thoroughly and adapt it to fit your specific data scenarios.

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